Voltage References

Voltage references are electronic devices that provide a fixed output voltage. They provide a constant voltage regardless of external factors. This includes the load on the device, temperature or fluctuations in the power supply. Learn more in our Complete Guide to Voltage References.

Voltage references have different characteristics depending on their purpose. Voltage references used in laboratory applications are designed to have extremely high precision and accuracy, whereas those used as regulators for computer power supplies are much cheaper but less precise.

There are many different kinds of voltage references, generally categorised by type, tolerance, rated voltage, reference voltage and rated current. The most common tolerances are ±2%, ±1% and ±0.5%, but voltage references are available even up to ±40%.

Voltage reference ICs come in a standard semiconductor package, such as PDIP, SO, SOIC and SOT-23. The pin count may also be combined with the package type, for example SO-8.

Types of voltage references

  • Two-terminal shunt voltage reference
  • Three-terminal series voltage reference
  • Band-gap voltage reference
  • Low noise voltage reference
  • Micropower voltage reference

What are voltage references used for?

Voltage references can be used for a variety of different precision measurement and control systems such as power supplies in personal computers and analogue-to-digital converters. They are also used in scientific applications and in medical equipment where voltage variations need to be tested regularly. Voltage references are also used in battery-powered devices.


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Description Price Nominal Voltage Package Type Reference Type Initial Accuracy Mounting Type Topology Maximum Output Current Maximum Input Voltage Minimum Output Voltage Maximum Output Voltage Pin Count Line Regulation Load Regulation Dimensions
RS Stock No. 145-3275
Mfr. Part No.TL431CLPG
HK$0.932
Each (In a Bag of 2000)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±2.2 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 661-9499
Mfr. Part No.TL431ACDBVR
HK$2.961
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 5 - - 2.9 x 1.6 x 1.15mm
RS Stock No. 857-979
Mfr. Part No.TL431CD
HK$261.38
Each
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±2.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 8 - - 4.9 x 3.91 x 1.58mm
RS Stock No. 526-307
Mfr. Part No.TL431CDR
HK$3.318
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±2.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 8 - - 4.9 x 3.91 x 1.58mm
RS Stock No. 535-9672
Mfr. Part No.LM4040EIM3-2.5/NOPB
HK$4.768
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
2.5V SOT-23 Fixed ±2.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 15mA - - - 3 - - 2.92 x 1.3 x 0.93mm
RS Stock No. 121-9267
Mfr. Part No.TL431AIDR
HK$0.852
Each (On a Reel of 2500)
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 8 - - 4.9 x 3.91 x 1.58mm
RS Stock No. 159-7584
Mfr. Part No.ADR02AKSZ-REEL7
HK$17.892
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
5V SC-70 Fixed ±0.1 % Through Hole Series 10mA 36 V 4.995 V 5.005 V 5 40 ppm/V 80 ppm/mA 2.2 x 1.35 x 1mm
RS Stock No. 889-5137
Mfr. Part No.MCP1525T-I/TT
BrandMicrochip
HK$5.109
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5V SOT-23 Fixed ±1.0 % Surface Mount Series 20mA 7 V 2.475 V 2.525 V 3 350 μV/V 1.3 mV/mA 2.9 x 1.3 x 0.95mm
RS Stock No. 698-9069
Mfr. Part No.MCP1525T-I/TT
BrandMicrochip
HK$7.28
Each
units
2.5V SOT-23 Fixed ±1.0 % Surface Mount Series 20mA 7 V 2.475 V 2.525 V 3 350 μV/V 1.3 mV/mA 2.9 x 1.3 x 0.95mm
RS Stock No. 163-0424
Mfr. Part No.CAT102TDI-GT3
HK$3.986
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
- TSOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt - 20 V 20 V - 5 1 mV 8 mV 2.9 x 1.6 x 0.9mm
RS Stock No. 121-8776
Mfr. Part No.LM4040DIZ-5.0/NOPB
HK$2.286
Each (In a Box of 1800)
units
5V TO-92 Fixed ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt 15mA - - - 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.2mm
RS Stock No. 661-9653
Mfr. Part No.TLVH431BQDBZT
HK$12.758
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
1.24 - 18V SOT-23 Adjustable ±0.5 % Surface Mount Shunt 70mA 20 V 1.24 V 18 V 3 - - 2.92 x 1.3 x 1mm
RS Stock No. 808-3959
Mfr. Part No.CAT102TDI-GT3
HK$9.618
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
0.6V TSOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt - 20 V 20 V - 5 1 mV 8 mV 2.9 x 1.6 x 0.9mm
RS Stock No. 534-3065
Mfr. Part No.LM4040DIZ-5.0/NOPB
HK$6.02
Each
units
5V TO-92 Precision 1% Through Hole Shunt 15mA - - - 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.2mm
RS Stock No. 759-0446
Mfr. Part No.ADR02AKSZ-REEL7
HK$26.15
Each
units
5V SC-70 Fixed ±0.1 % Through Hole Series 10mA 36 V 4.995 V 5.005 V 5 40 ppm/V 80 ppm/mA 2.2 x 1.35 x 1mm
RS Stock No. 533-8489
Mfr. Part No.LM4040DIM3-2.5/NOPB
HK$5.79
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
2.5V SOT-23 Fixed ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 15mA - - - 3 - 8 mV 2.92 x 1.3 x 0.93mm
RS Stock No. 460-988
Mfr. Part No.LM385M-2.5/NOPB
HK$7.739
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
2.5V SOIC Fixed ±3 % Surface Mount Shunt 20mA - - - 8 - 20 mV 4.9 x 3.9 x 1.45mm
RS Stock No. 121-8713
Mfr. Part No.LM4040DIM3-2.5/NOPB
HK$2.203
Each (On a Reel of 1000)
units
2.5V SOT-23 Fixed ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 15mA - - - 3 - 8 mV 2.92 x 1.3 x 0.93mm
RS Stock No. 779-8909
Mfr. Part No.LM329BZ#PBF
HK$31.93
Each (In a Pack of 2)
units
6.9V TO-92 Fixed ±5 % Through Hole Shunt 15mA - - 6.9 V 3 - - 4.572 x 4.572 x 3.556mm
RS Stock No. 162-5937
Mfr. Part No.TLVH431BQDBZT
HK$7.936
Each (On a Reel of 250)
units
1.24 - 18V SOT-23 Adjustable ±0.5 % Surface Mount Shunt 70mA 20 V 1.24 V 18 V 3 - - 2.92 x 1.3 x 1mm