Voltage References

Voltage references are electronic devices that provide a fixed output voltage. They provide a constant voltage regardless of external factors. This includes the load on the device, temperature or fluctuations in the power supply. Learn more in our Complete Guide to Voltage References.

Voltage references have different characteristics depending on their purpose. Voltage references used in laboratory applications are designed to have extremely high precision and accuracy, whereas those used as regulators for computer power supplies are much cheaper but less precise.

There are many different kinds of voltage references, generally categorised by type, tolerance, rated voltage, reference voltage and rated current. The most common tolerances are ±2%, ±1% and ±0.5%, but voltage references are available even up to ±40%.

Voltage reference ICs come in a standard semiconductor package, such as PDIP, SO, SOIC and SOT-23. The pin count may also be combined with the package type, for example SO-8.

Types of voltage references

  • Two-terminal shunt voltage reference
  • Three-terminal series voltage reference
  • Band-gap voltage reference
  • Low noise voltage reference
  • Micropower voltage reference

What are voltage references used for?

Voltage references can be used for a variety of different precision measurement and control systems such as power supplies in personal computers and analogue-to-digital converters. They are also used in scientific applications and in medical equipment where voltage variations need to be tested regularly. Voltage references are also used in battery-powered devices.


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Description Price Nominal Voltage Package Type Reference Type Initial Accuracy Mounting Type Topology Maximum Output Current Maximum Input Voltage Minimum Output Voltage Maximum Output Voltage Pin Count Line Regulation Load Regulation Dimensions
RS Stock No. 428-436
Mfr. Part No.TL431ACLP
HK$4.70
Each
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 4.83 x 3.43 x 3.68mm
RS Stock No. 121-9180
Mfr. Part No.TL431AQDBZT
HK$4.494
Each (On a Reel of 250)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 2.92 x 1.3 x 1mm
RS Stock No. 661-9524
Mfr. Part No.TL431AQDBZT
HK$8.442
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 2.92 x 1.3 x 1mm
RS Stock No. 809-5378
Mfr. Part No.TL431AQDBZR
HK$4.768
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - - 36 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.02mm
RS Stock No. 145-1010
Mfr. Part No.TL431ACLP
HK$1.187
Each (In a Bag of 1000)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 4.83 x 3.43 x 3.68mm
RS Stock No. 168-4288
Mfr. Part No.TL431AQDBZR
HK$1.187
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - - 36 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.02mm
RS Stock No. 169-5617
Mfr. Part No.TL431CLPR
HK$0.73
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±2.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 4.83 x 3.43 x 3.68mm
RS Stock No. 661-9827
Mfr. Part No.TL431CLPR
HK$3.266
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±2.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 4.83 x 3.43 x 3.68mm
RS Stock No. 121-8299
Mfr. Part No.REF5045AID
HK$26.172
Each (In a Tube of 75)
units
4.5V SOIC Fixed ±0.05 % Surface Mount Series 10mA 18 V - - 8 1 ppm/V 50 ppm/mA 5 x 4 x 1.5mm
RS Stock No. 179-1626
Mfr. Part No.TL431CD
HK$2.547
Each (In a Tube of 75)
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±2.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 8 - - 4.9 x 3.91 x 1.58mm
RS Stock No. 404-320
Mfr. Part No.REF5045AID
HK$33.24
Each
units
4.5V SOIC Fixed ±0.05 % Surface Mount Series 10mA 18 V - - 8 1 ppm/V 50 ppm/mA 5 x 4 x 1.5mm
RS Stock No. 162-5894
Mfr. Part No.TL431ACDBVR
HK$1.024
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 5 - - 2.9 x 1.6 x 1.15mm
RS Stock No. 661-9499
Mfr. Part No.TL431ACDBVR
HK$2.961
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 5 - - 2.9 x 1.6 x 1.15mm
RS Stock No. 535-9616
Mfr. Part No.LM4040CIM3-4.1/NOPB
HK$6.562
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
4.1V SOT-23 Fixed ±0.5 % Surface Mount Shunt 15mA - - - 3 - 7 mV 2.92 x 1.3 x 0.93mm
RS Stock No. 526-307
Mfr. Part No.TL431CDR
HK$3.318
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±2.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 8 - - 4.9 x 3.91 x 1.58mm
RS Stock No. 857-979
Mfr. Part No.TL431CD
HK$261.38
Each
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±2.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 8 - - 4.9 x 3.91 x 1.58mm
RS Stock No. 121-9267
Mfr. Part No.TL431AIDR
HK$0.852
Each (On a Reel of 2500)
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 8 - - 4.9 x 3.91 x 1.58mm
RS Stock No. 711-2475
Mfr. Part No.TL431AIDR
HK$4.222
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 8 - - 4.9 x 3.91 x 1.58mm
RS Stock No. 661-9653
Mfr. Part No.TLVH431BQDBZT
HK$12.758
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
1.24 - 18V SOT-23 Adjustable ±0.5 % Surface Mount Shunt 70mA 20 V 1.24 V 18 V 3 - - 2.92 x 1.3 x 1mm
RS Stock No. 533-8489
Mfr. Part No.LM4040DIM3-2.5/NOPB
HK$5.79
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
2.5V SOT-23 Fixed ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 15mA - - - 3 - 8 mV 2.92 x 1.3 x 0.93mm