Voltage References

Voltage references are electronic devices that provide a fixed output voltage. They provide a constant voltage regardless of external factors. This includes the load on the device, temperature or fluctuations in the power supply. Learn more in our Complete Guide to Voltage References.

Voltage references have different characteristics depending on their purpose. Voltage references used in laboratory applications are designed to have extremely high precision and accuracy, whereas those used as regulators for computer power supplies are much cheaper but less precise.

There are many different kinds of voltage references, generally categorised by type, tolerance, rated voltage, reference voltage and rated current. The most common tolerances are ±2%, ±1% and ±0.5%, but voltage references are available even up to ±40%.

Voltage reference ICs come in a standard semiconductor package, such as PDIP, SO, SOIC and SOT-23. The pin count may also be combined with the package type, for example SO-8.

Types of voltage references

  • Two-terminal shunt voltage reference
  • Three-terminal series voltage reference
  • Band-gap voltage reference
  • Low noise voltage reference
  • Micropower voltage reference

What are voltage references used for?

Voltage references can be used for a variety of different precision measurement and control systems such as power supplies in personal computers and analogue-to-digital converters. They are also used in scientific applications and in medical equipment where voltage variations need to be tested regularly. Voltage references are also used in battery-powered devices.


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Description Price Nominal Voltage Package Type Reference Type Initial Accuracy Mounting Type Topology Maximum Output Current Maximum Input Voltage Minimum Output Voltage Maximum Output Voltage Pin Count Line Regulation Load Regulation Dimensions
RS Stock No. 463-482
Mfr. Part No.LM385Z-1.2G
HK$4.398
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
1.235V TO-92 Fixed ±2.0 % Through Hole Shunt 20mA - 1.205 V 1.26 V 3 - 20 mV 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 101-8304
Mfr. Part No.LM385Z-1.2G
HK$2.333
Each (In a Bag of 2000)
units
1.235V TO-92 Fixed ±2.0 % Through Hole Shunt 20mA - 1.205 V 1.26 V 3 - 20 mV 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 776-0759
Mfr. Part No.NCP431ACSNT1G
HK$2.846
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Programmable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - 2.475 V 36 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.01mm
RS Stock No. 163-1004
Mfr. Part No.NCP431ACSNT1G
HK$0.925
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Programmable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - 2.475 V 36 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.01mm
RS Stock No. 145-3275
Mfr. Part No.TL431CLPG
HK$0.932
Each (In a Bag of 2000)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±2.2 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 463-246
Mfr. Part No.TL431CLPG
HK$2.647
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±2.2 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 163-0424
Mfr. Part No.CAT102TDI-GT3
HK$3.986
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
- TSOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt - 20 V 20 V - 5 1 mV 8 mV 2.9 x 1.6 x 0.9mm
RS Stock No. 808-3959
Mfr. Part No.CAT102TDI-GT3
HK$9.618
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
0.6V TSOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt - 20 V 20 V - 5 1 mV 8 mV 2.9 x 1.6 x 0.9mm
RS Stock No. 163-0923
Mfr. Part No.LM385BZ-2.5G
HK$2.535
Each (In a Bag of 2000)
units
2.5V TO-92 Fixed ±1.5 % Through Hole Shunt 20mA - - 2.5 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 463-498
Mfr. Part No.LM385Z-2.5G
HK$5.009
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
2.5V TO-92 Fixed ±3 % Through Hole Shunt 20mA - 2.425 V 2.575 V 3 - 20 mV 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 163-1234
Mfr. Part No.TLV431BSN1T1G
HK$1.25
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
1.24 - 16V SOT-23 Adjustable ±0.5 % Surface Mount Shunt 20mA - 1.24 V 16 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.04 x 1.01mm
RS Stock No. 862-4922
Mfr. Part No.LM385BZ-1.2G
HK$5.008
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
1.235V TO-92 Fixed ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt - - - - 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 162-9967
Mfr. Part No.LM385BZ-1.2G
HK$2.173
Each (In a Bag of 2000)
units
1.235V TO-92 Fixed ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt - - - - 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 781-5553
Mfr. Part No.TLV431BSN1T1G
HK$3.486
Each (In a Pack of 20)
units
1.24 - 16V SOT-23 Adjustable ±0.5 % Surface Mount Shunt 20mA - 1.24 V 16 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.04 x 1.01mm
RS Stock No. 163-2419
Mfr. Part No.LM385Z-2.5G
HK$2.029
Each (In a Bag of 2000)
units
2.5V TO-92 Fixed ±3 % Through Hole Shunt 20mA - 2.425 V 2.575 V 3 - 20 mV 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 774-3486
Mfr. Part No.LM385BZ-2.5G
HK$6.196
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
2.5V TO-92 Fixed ±1.5 % Through Hole Shunt 20mA - - 2.5 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 781-4395
Mfr. Part No.NCP431AVSNT1G
HK$2.596
Each (On a Tape of 50)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Programmable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - - 36 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.04 x 1.01mm
RS Stock No. 805-1337
Mfr. Part No.LM285D-1.2G
HK$5.191
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
1.235V SOIC Fixed ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt - - - - 8 - - 5 x 4 x 1.5mm
RS Stock No. 186-9362
Mfr. Part No.TL431BIDG
HK$3.018
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
2.49V SOIC Programmable 0.4% Surface Mount Shunt - 2.51 V - 36 V 8 - - 5 x 4 x 1.5mm
RS Stock No. 806-4049
Mfr. Part No.LM431SBCMFX
HK$1.361
Each (On a Tape of 100)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23F Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - 2.5 (Cathode) V 36 V 3 - - 3 x 1.7 x 1mm