What is EPROM?EPROM stands for erasable programmable read only memory and is a type of solid state memory chip that retains its memory contents without the help of a power supply. The basic transistor device in an EPROM is different from the normal MOS transistor. A floating gate avalanche injection MOS transistor is used. There are two gates to this MOS transistor. One is a floating gate, meaning that it has no electrical connection to that gate.Types of solid state memory available with different desirable characteristics:ROMRead Only Memory, non-volatile (memory contents are retained even without the help of a power supply), are low power and high density.RAMRandom Access Memory is volatile.PROMProgrammable ROM allows you to write your own content or program. It cannot be erased so you can only program it once. EPROMYou can erase whatever you have programmed and can reprogram it thus allowing it to be reused. It can be erased with ultra violet (UV) light which basically means that you have to take the chip out from the circuit and expose the memory chip to UV lights. These memory chips come with a particular package which enables this to happen. Standard room lighting cannot be used to erase the chip as it does not have enough UV light, however bright sunlight can cause erasure therefore this is why the window is protected with a label. There is a glass window on top which you can expose these memory cells to UV light. Once this happens the electrons which are in the floating gate, get excited because of the high energy they acquire and they overcome the silicon dioxide barrier and move over to the silicon substrate or the control gate and once they do this you are reducing the threshold voltage. This can take up to 30 minutes in which you have to expose it to UV light, after which the electrons move out from the floating gate and then it is ready for reprogramming.Disadvantages of EPROM is that it takes time to erase the entire content. You dont have control over which bits you want erased.Differences between EPROM and EEPROMEEPROM (electrically erasable programmable ROM) can be erased electrically and can be reprogrammed. The device it uses is called FLOTOX (Floating Gate Tunnelling Oxide) MOS. It is more flexible than EPROM, for example you can erase a single bit of memory internally at a time without removing the chip. There are also two transistors per cell instead of one so the density of an EEPROM is slightly less compared to the normal EPROM.

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