Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar Transistors are a solid state, three-pin devices made from three layers of silicon. A bipolar transistor is designed to amplify current, bipolar transistors can also function as a switch. There are two main types of transistor, PNP (positive negative positive) or NPN (negative positive-negative).

How a Bipolar transistor is made

Bipolar transistors are constructed by joining two signal diodes back to back creating two PN junctions connected in series, sharing a common P or N terminal. By nature, silicon does not normally conduct electricity well. However, when silicon is treated with certain chemicals or impurities we can make the material and electrons behave in a different way. This process is called doping. The doping process improves the semiconductors ability to conduct electricity.

How do bipolar transistors work?

Bipolar transistors have two possible functions, switching, and amplification. Due to the devices three layers of doped semiconductor material, supplying the transistor with a signal voltage enables the discrete component to act as an insulator or a conductor. This clever change provides the transistors with two basic functions, switching (digital) electronics or amplification (analog) electronics.

Transistors are available in panel, surface and through-hole mounting options in plastic package or metal can versions. All have three terminals or pins, the Base, the Collector, and the Emitter.

They are also available as;

  • Digital transistors - are made of a semiconductor material, usually silicon, which conducts the current (or electricity) with little resistance. They also tend to have at least three terminals for easy connection to an external circuit.
  • UJT transistors - constructed of a bar of lightly dope N type silicone with a small piece of heavily doped P type material attached to one side. Since the silicon bar is lightly dope it has very high resistance.

Applications of bipolar transistors?

Transistors are one of the most widely used discrete components in electronic designs and circuits. Transistors are used for the amplification of all types of electrical signals in circuits made up of individual components rather than ICs (integrated circuits).


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Description Price Transistor Type Maximum DC Collector Current Maximum Collector Emitter Voltage Package Type Mounting Type Maximum Power Dissipation Minimum DC Current Gain Transistor Configuration Maximum Collector Base Voltage Maximum Emitter Base Voltage Maximum Operating Frequency Pin Count Number of Elements per Chip Dimensions
RS Stock No. 184-868
Mfr. Part No.2SC5198-O(Q)
BrandToshiba
HK$13.62
Each
units
NPN 10 A 140 V TO-3PN Through Hole 100 W - Single 140 V 5 V 30 MHz 3 1 19 x 15.9 x 4.8mm
RS Stock No. 125-0072
Mfr. Part No.MJE15030G
Brandonsemi
HK$14.775
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
NPN 8 A 150 V TO-220AB Through Hole 50 W - Single 150 V 5 V 30 MHz 3 1 9.28 x 10.28 x 4.82mm
RS Stock No. 544-9680
Mfr. Part No.MJE15030G
Brandonsemi
HK$16.06
Each
units
NPN 8 A 150 V TO-220AB Through Hole 50 W - Single 150 V 5 V 30 MHz 3 1 9.28 x 10.28 x 4.82mm
RS Stock No. 806-2750
Mfr. Part No.KSC3503DSTU
Brandonsemi
HK$4.696
Each (In a Tube of 60)
units
NPN 100 mA 300 V TO-126 Through Hole 7 W - Single 300 V 5 V 1 MHz 3 1 8 x 3.25 x 11mm
RS Stock No. 545-0343
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT1G
Brandonsemi
HK$1.354
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW - Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 0.94 x 2.9 x 1.3mm
RS Stock No. 793-0753
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT3G
Brandonsemi
HK$0.696
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 900 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW - Single 60 V dc 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.01mm
RS Stock No. 843-1575
Mfr. Part No.2N3904BU
Brandonsemi
HK$2.053
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW - Single 60 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 314-1823
Mfr. Part No.BD139
HK$6.68
Each
units
NPN 3 A 80 V SOT-32 Through Hole 1.25 W - Single 80 V 5 V - 3 1 10.8 x 7.8 x 2.7mm
RS Stock No. 103-2948
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT1G
Brandonsemi
HK$0.288
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW - Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 0.94 x 2.9 x 1.3mm
RS Stock No. 842-8015
Mfr. Part No.2N3904BU
Brandonsemi
HK$0.664
Each (In a Bag of 1000)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW - Single 60 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 124-1317
Mfr. Part No.2N3904TA
Brandonsemi
HK$0.487
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW - Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 805-1056
Mfr. Part No.2N3904TFR
Brandonsemi
HK$0.869
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW - Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 168-6075
Mfr. Part No.BD139
HK$6.146
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
NPN 3 A 80 V SOT-32 Through Hole 1.25 W - Single 80 V 5 V - 3 1 10.8 x 7.8 x 2.7mm
RS Stock No. 170-3540
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT3G
Brandonsemi
HK$0.254
Each (On a Reel of 10000)
units
NPN 900 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW - Single 60 V dc 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.01mm
RS Stock No. 145-4345
Mfr. Part No.BD13916STU
Brandonsemi
HK$4.994
Each (In a Tube of 60)
units
NPN 1.5 A 80 V TO-126 Through Hole 12.5 W - Single 80 V 5 V - 3 1 8 x 3.25 x 11mm
RS Stock No. 805-1043
Mfr. Part No.2N3904TAR
Brandonsemi
HK$0.949
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW - Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 761-3511
Mfr. Part No.BD13916STU
Brandonsemi
HK$5.129
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 1.5 A 80 V TO-126 Through Hole 12.5 W - Single 80 V 5 V - 3 1 8 x 3.25 x 11mm
RS Stock No. 146-2331
Mfr. Part No.BC338-25 A1
HK$0.459
Each (On a Tape of 4000)
units
NPN 800 mA 25 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW - Single 30 V 5 V - 3 1 5.1 x 4.1 x 4.7mm
RS Stock No. 796-9684
Mfr. Part No.BC338-25 A1
HK$1.11
Each (In a Pack of 250)
units
NPN 800 mA 25 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW - Single 30 V 5 V - 3 1 5.1 x 4.1 x 4.7mm
RS Stock No. 124-1731
Mfr. Part No.BC33725TA
Brandonsemi
HK$0.605
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
units
NPN 800 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW - Single - 5 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.33 x 5.2 x 4.19mm